## Questionable Assumptions

Kalen Craig was a physical science technician,
employed for 30 years at the Naval Research Laboratory in
Washington D.C. He worked mostly on wave propagation, and radio
and radar astronomy projects. But as you will see if you check
out his web site "kalenuniverse.com"; He has many advanced
theories on the leading edge of science. * * * These are some of the concepts that astrophysicists often make that we say are not necessarily so. Do not be surprised if most of the concepts on this list are ideas you believed to be correct. 1. The ether, as a medium for light and gravity waves, does not exist. 2. The universe is expanding; and it started expanding as a Big Bang, from a point some 12 to 20 billion years ago. 3. About 90 percent of the mass of the universe exists as some form of unseen exotic dark matter. 4. Nothing, not even information, can move faster than light. 5. A photon is a small wave packet particle that moves from source to sink along one path. 6. Planck’s constant h, represents the smallest quantum unit or particle. 7. All matter is attractive, so that , the earth would attract a neutral antimatter mass. 8. Quantum mechanical weirdness can not be explained in terms of conventional logic. 9. The illusive Higgs particle is difficult to detect, because it has too much energy or mass. 10. A singularity is said to exist at the center of a black hole. At a singularity physics fails. So, one is thought to have existed to justify the Big Bang! 11. A force (appearing as action at a distance) would be due to the exchange of quantum messenger particles. The above is a rather comprehensive list. If one or more of these common assumptions are wrong; then the world of physics is in for a big surprise. The authors have questioned all of these beliefs for a number of years. Kalen and his brother Eugene have recently published a book and a web site "kalenuniverse.com" explaining much of our reasoning. We will include some of our ideas in this report, and hope that it will whet the appetite and curiosity of the reader. ## 1. ETHERThe idea of an all prevalent ether was accepted by most everyone until Einstein proved that gravity could be described in terms of curved 4-dimensional space-time. By viewing space-time as curved one does not need to assume that space is an ether that accommodates electromagnetic and gravitational waves. A moving mass or photon would just follow the curvature of space. No force is required.However, not needing something does not prove that it does not exist. Space curvature in general relativity is thought to be generated by the presence of mass. Why this should be is not considered. However, if space acceleration generates gravity and the convergence of space toward a point generates inertia, then one can incorporate space acceleration into general relativity; instead of assuming the presence of matter. Thus space acceleration is mathematically equivalent to space curvature. The acceleration of gravity is directed down into the earth. One must ask, where would such a flow of ether go? Super string theorists have recently proposed that tiny black holes exist at the centers of all mass particles. These holes could carry away the ether flow. For over ten years the authors have assumed that such black holes exist inside of mass particles. We are pleased to find that others are beginning to see things our way. We therefore, assume that space is an ether like fluid or medium that flows and accelerates toward mass. ## 2. SPACE EXPANSIONSpace expansion seems obvious because of the observed cosmic red shift of light from distant sources. Even if we assume that space is expanding, extrapolating the apparent expansion back to a beginning point and assuming a fantastic explosion from nothing called the Big Bang is a bit much.We point out that if the time dimension is decreasing (time slowing) the observed red shift would occur without space expansion. The assumption of time slowing is logically equivalent to assuming that space is expanding. Professor William De sitter was probably the first to propose a time slowing model of the universe. In 1917 he modified Einstein's model by assuming hyperbolic rather than spherical space-time. He suggested that this would slow time and produce an apparently expanding universe. He did this before the cosmic redshift was discovered. We, of course, adopted the Einstein-DeSitter model by assuming a toroidal space-time. Our toroid is a closed form of hyperbolic space-time, which allows time to oscillate between two limits rather than go to infinity or start from a Big Bang singularity point. ## 3. MISSING DARK MATTERThe conclusion that much of the mass of the universe is some type of exotic dark matter, is largely based upon the assumption that all gravitational forces are attractions. If, as we assume, half of the matter in the universe is antimatter, that is segregated from matter because matter repels antimatter; then one would have to rethink the missing matter problem.We expect that, in the near future, experimenters will announce that the earth repels antimatter, because they will have observed that slow moving neutral antimatter atoms fall up. Incidentally, a repulsion between matter and antimatter galaxies would generate and exonerate Einstein’s controversial cosmological constant. ## 4. LIGHT SPEED LIMITIt is conceded by many cosmologists that the concept of wormholes would permit the instantaneous transfer of matter or information from one place to another in this universe or even to another universe.Wormhole (Schwarzschild) solutions of gravity equations for black holes were discovered by Einstein, Oppenheimer, Wheeler and others. But the reality of wormhole tunnels was only recently taken seriously by most authorities. Black holes pull mass objects into themselves at velocity c. At velocity c, according to special relativity, time stops. Time can be defined by (or as) motion or change. Our #2 postulate is that: any time---time stops (either by zero motion or by velocity c motion) a wormhole opens. It is thought that a velocity c (black) wormhole can transfer mass and information to another universe. We postulate that a zero motion wormhole can transfer mass and information (space) to another location in this universe. ## 5. WAVE PARTICLE PROBLEMSPhotons appear to expand radially through a vacuum. After a short or a long time a very large wave front would arrive at the target area. A very strange thing then happens! All the energy of the photon group of wave cycles instantly converges upon a receptive particle (electron). This is called the collapse of the wave equation.How can all the energy of this group of very large wave cycles instantly converge upon one point? In order to avoid this apparent absurdity it is usually assumed that a photon particle is not compounded from large waves but rather only exists as a group of small waves called a wave packet. If so, it does not expand radially as a wave process. Instead as a small wave packet particle it would follow one path to the target electron. In this case the wave equation for the photon is thought to be an imaginary concept that does not actually exist, but even so the imaginary peak amplitudes of the waves can be calculated and used to predict where the actual photon particle will land. However, experiments such as the double or multiple slit experiment, indicate that a photon can simultaneously go through multiple paths to a target. In order to do this it must move (expand) as a wave process not move as a particle. Our explanation is that Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations have two solutions. One for ordinary wave motion called retarded potentials. The waves are first emitted then received. The other is a mysterious solution called advanced potentials, where the waves appear to collapse rather than expand and to have a negative time component. This solution is usually ignored as undecipherable. What does a minus time mean? We assume that it means that advanced potentials can collapse instantaneously. We say that electromagnetic waves can generate wormholes; because the electric and magnetic fields go through a zero motion point at their maximum amplitudes One of our primary postulates is that zero motion is zero time and that a condition of zero time opens a wormhole. The photon waves can move instantly through such a wormhole and collapse onto a target electron. In other words, the collapse of the wave equation is real through wormholes that accommodate Maxwell’s advanced waves. ## 6. SUB QUANTUM MECHANICSPlanck’s constant h is the basis of quantum mechanics, which is strictly an electromagnetic (charge) theory that does not apply to gravity (mass theory). However, electrons and other Fermion particles have both mass and charge. The gravity field of an electron is some 1040 times weaker than it’s charge field. Consequently, the gravity fields of particles have little effect on chemistry and on ordinary motions of particles; so is largely ignored.We say that there exists a quantum gravity mechanics as a sub realm of ordinary quantum mechanics, and that these tiny gravity fields are important. The charge quantum (Planck’s constant) is h = mcy where mc is the electron momentum and y is the Compton wavelength of an electron. A gravity quantum (Kalen’s constant) would likely be k = mcd where d is the Planck unit of length. This formula gives a gravitational quantum mechanics that is some 20 orders of magnitude weaker than charge quantum mechanics. We believe that this sub quantum gravity mechanics generates Einstein’s hidden variables, Bohm’s implicate orders and probably quantum foam (Higgs’s particles). And we suggest that this foam is actually the ether (space particles). ## 7. IS ALL MATTER ATTRACTIVE?Each or the fundamental particles has an antimatter counterpart. Most of these antimatter particle pairs have been created in the laboratory. However, very few antimatter particles have been found free in surrounding universe.Most antimatter-matter pairs are of opposite charge and would attract one another and annihilate (convert into radiation). So few are found. Radiation can be converted back into matter-antimatter pairs. Most theories suggest that, at some time in the past, the universe had equal amounts of matter land antimatter. Where has all the antimatter gone? The experimenters found a slight difference between the decay rates of particles and antiparticles. This discrepancy, called charge-parity reversal or CP asymmetry for short, was discovered in 1964 in argon decays. It is commonly thought that a similar but larger CP asymmetry (during the "Big Bang") could have produced our present all matter universe. Our conjecture is slightly different. We think that in the past the universe was in a state similar to one stage of the Big Bang. It was a mixture of hot ions and atoms, with equal quantities of matter and antimatter particles. CP asymmetry along with random motions of the particles could have produced local concentrations of normal neutral atoms and molecules. Once a neutral group formed a repulsion force between matter and antimatter could protect the group from bombardment by antimatter particles. This isolating and segregating force could allow local groups to grow into galaxies and galactic clusters. A similar process could have produced antimatter galaxies or clusters, which we see today but do not recognize as antimatter. But why should we expect matter to repel antimatter? There are clues! First, it is normal to expect likes to attract and opposites to repel. Matter and antimatter are opposites. Second, it allows the segregation of matter from antimatter. Third, a segregated antimatter galaxy would look just like an ordinary galaxy. And the repulsion would prevent us from seeing a fireworks display between matter and antimatter galaxies. Fourth, the apparent excess mass (dark matter) of the universe would be explained if half the mass of the universe is in antimatter galaxies or clusters segregated from matter clusters by repulsion. We already looked at the fourth clue in our answer #3 on the dark matter problem. If the matter repels antimatter the earth would repel a neutral antimatter atom. Antimatter would fall up! Look for this announcement in science news headlines. In the near future. ## 8. QUANTUM WEIRDNESSIt’s not really weird. Even though, Niles Bohr once said something like "If a person does not see the weirdness of quantum mechanics he does not understand quantum mechanics". This weirdness depends upon ones’ acceptance of questionable assumptions 4 and 5. We rejected these assumptions on the basis of the existence of wormholes that allow the instantaneous transference of space and even mass objects from one location to another.## 9. HIGGS SPACE PARTICLESA big problem for the particle experimenters is to detect the Higgs particle. The abandoned super collider was primarily designed to measure this particle. Leon Lederman who was in charge of building the collider, called it the God particle because it apparently creates mass. The reason physicists believed that they needed such a big machine was their assumption (based on electromagnetic quantum mechanics) that the Higgs particle would be very massive. We say that Higgs particles are just the opposite and have extremely small mass. We believe that space (ether) is composed of Higgs particles. And that space flows toward matter. The acceleration of space is gravity, and the convergence of space toward a point generates inertia (mass).## 10. BLACK HOLES and SINGULARITIESA black hole is defined as a collapsing concentration of mass so dense that its surface gravity (called the event horizon) prevents even light from leaving the mass object.Classical general relativity seems to predict that that the black hole will continue to collapse within the event horizon to a point where gravity is so intense as to create a singularity. A singularity like dividing by zero is a place where the laws of physics and math fail. The occurrence of a singularity or of an infinity in physical theory is a sign that the theory or model is either wrong or has been extrapolated beyond its acceptable limits. If, as we say, gravity is the acceleration of space which has a tiny mass. This acceleration is limited by special relativity to the velocity of light which would occur at the event horizon of a black hole. Therefore, gravity does not increase within a black hole to generate a singularity. ## 11. ACTION AT A DISTANCENewton thought that the idea of a force (action) at a distance without the intervention of particles or waves was absurd. Most everyone agrees.Most theorists assume that these forces are due to boson, messenger particle exchanges. The authors have not been able to visualize how a particle exchange can produce an attraction? However, we believe that boson particle forces are more easily visualized as due to space flows. Where the disappearance of space such as gravity space flowing into mass represents an attraction. The appearance of space, such as charge space flowing out of charge, represents a repulsion. The appearance of gravity space between matter and antimatter galaxies constitutes a repulsion. In fact it represents the cosmic repulsion suggested by Einstein’s cosmological constant. The attraction between opposite charges is due to the disappearance of charge space at the interface between the opposite charges. Perhaps I should explain that what we call gravity space is an all prevailing gravity field, similarly and our charge space is an ubiquitous electrostatic field. We postulate that each fills all of space, and that together they constitute the ether but are independent of one another. The idea of force at a distance as due to space increasing or decreasing between interacting objects is simple, but new, and may take a little getting used to. Kalen Craig |